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Open Access Research

17-DMAG diminishes hemorrhage-induced small intestine injury by elevating Bcl-2 protein and inhibiting iNOS pathway, TNF-α increase, and caspase-3 activation

Juliann G Kiang123*, Neil G Agravante1, Joan T Smith1 and Phillip D Bowman4

Author Affiliations

1 Radiation Combined Injury Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

2 Department of Radiation Biology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

3 Department of Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

4 US Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, USA

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Cell & Bioscience 2011, 1:21  doi:10.1186/2045-3701-1-21

Published: 3 June 2011

Abstract

Background

Hemorrhage increases inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and depletes ATP levels in various tissues. Previous studies have shown that geldanamycin, an inducer of heat shock protein 70kDa (HSP-70) and inhibitor of iNOS, limits both processes. Reduction in NO production limits lipid peroxidation, apoptosome formation, and caspase-3 activation, thereby increasing cellular survival and reducing the sequelae of hemorrhage. The poor solubility of geldanamycin in aqueous solutions, however, limits its effectiveness as a drug. 17-DMAG is a water-soluble analog of geldanamycin that might have greater therapeutic utility. This study investigated the effectiveness of 17-DMAG at reducing hemorrhagic injury in mouse small intestine.

Results

In mice, the hemorrhage-induced iNOS increase correlated with increases in Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) and NF-kB and a decrease in KLF4. As a result, increases in NO production and lipid peroxidation occurred. Moreover, hemorrhage also resulted in decreased Bcl-2 and increased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations, p53 protein, caspase-3 activation, and cellular ATP depletion. A shortening and widening of villi in the small intestine was also observed. Treatment with 17-DMAG significantly reduced the hemorrhage-induced increases in iNOS protein, jejunal alteration, and TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations, but 17-DMAG did not affect the hemorrhage-induced increases in p53 and IL-6 concentration. 17-DMAG treatment by itself upregulated HSP-70, Bcl-2, and p53.

Conclusion

Since 17-DMAG is water soluble, bioactive, and not toxic, 17-DMAG may prove useful as a prophylactic drug for hemorrhage.